Flexibility in e-Learning: Modelling Its Relation to Behavioral Engagement and Academic Performance

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Mehmet Kokoç http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1347-8033


The purpose of this study is to assess perceived flexibility of distance learners associated with their behavioral engagement and academic performances. The study was conducted following predictive correlational design. A total of 119 higher education students enrolled in a 15-week fully online course participated in the study. Data sources included Flexibility Scale data, behavioral engagement data derived from learning analytics indicators and academic performances of the students based on their mid-term grades, quiz results and final grades. The study data were analyzed using the Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling approach to test the research model. The findings revealed that perceived flexibility of time and perceived flexibility regarding the content have a significant positive effects on behavioral engagement and academic performances, whereas perceived flexibility of teacher contact, surprisingly, does not significantly affect. The study contributes to our understanding of the role of flexibility dimensions in online learning experiences and learning outcomes. The study concludes with discussing practical implications of the results and suggestions for researchers.

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