The use of smart wearables in primary and secondary education: A systematic review

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George Koutromanos Georgia Kazakou


The aim of this literature review was to examine the empirical evidence for the use of smart wearables in primary and secondary education between 2010 and 2020. The initial search yielded 1.868 results, from which a total of 15 articles were included in the final analysis. Major findings include that most studies used devices such as smart watches and fitness trackers. About half of the reviewed studies do not refer to any learning theory or other pedagogical background. Moreover, in many studies there are several learning outcomes from using smart wearables in education, such as improved performance, increased motivation, and attitudes towards learning. Despite those findings though, the existing research on the use of smart wearables in education is still in its early phase. Therefore, future research should be enriched with more methodological rigor and longitudinal studies in order to correlate the impact of smart wearables on students’ learning with variables such as the type of device, learning environment, subjects, and learning theory. The findings of this literature review may provide insights for researchers and teachers into the use of smart wearables in education.

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